Bahan Dasar Membuat kaca

Bahan Dasar Membuat Kaca

Bahan Dasar Membuat Kaca – Kaca ada salah satu barang yang bisa kita jumpai di mana saja, namun tidak banyak yang kita ketahui tentang mengenai kaca tersebut. Kaca merupakan produk industri kimia yang paling akrab dengan kehidupan kita sehari-hari.

Dipandang dari segi fisika kaca merupakan zat cair yang sangat dingin. Disebut demikian karena struktur partikel-partikel penyusunnya yang saling berjauhan seperti dalam zat cair namun dia sendiri berwujud padat. Ini terjadi akibat proses pendinginan (cooling) yang sangat cepat, sehingga partikel-partikel silika tidak sempat menyusun diri secara teratur.

Dari segi kimia, kaca merupakan gabungan dari berbagai oksida anorganik yang tidak mudah menguap , yang dihasilkan dari dekomposisi dan peleburan senyawa alkali serta alkali tanah, pasir serta berbagai penyusun lainnya. Kaca memiliki sifat-sifat yang khas dibanding dengan golongan keramik lainnya. Kekhasan sifat-sifat kaca ini terutama dipengaruhi oleh keunikan silika (SiO2) serta proses pembentukannya.

Untuk membuat berbagai jenis kaca, digunakan pasir kaca dalam jumlah yang besar. Sebagai fluks bagi silika ini, dipakai soda abu, kerak garam, batu gamping serta gamping. Di samping itu, banyak pula dipakai oksida timbal, abu mutiara (kalsium karbonat), saltpeter, boraks, asam borat, asam trioksida, feldspar, dan fluorspar bersama berbagai jenis oksida, karbonat serta garam-garam logam lain untuk membuat kaca berwarna. Dalam operasi penyelesaian, banyak pula dipakai berbagai produk lain seperti abrasif serta asam fluorida.

Baca Juga:

Pasir yang digunakan untuk membuat kaca haruslah kuarsa yang hampir murni. Oleh karena itu, lokasi pabrik kaca biasanya ditentukan oleh lokasi endapan pasir kaca. Kandungan besinya tidak boleh melebihi 0,45% untuk barang gelas pecah belah atau 0,015% untuk kaca optic, sebab kandungan besi ini bersifat merusak warna kaca pada umumnya.
Soda (Na2O) terutama didapat dari soda abu padat (Na2CO3). Sumber lainnya merupakan bikarbonat, kerak garam, dan natriun nitrat. Yang tersebut terakhir ini sangat berguna untuk mengoksidasi besi dan untuk mempercepat pencairan. Sumber gamping (CaO) yang terpenting ialah batu gamping serta gamping bakar dari dolomite (CaCO3. MgCO3) yang berfungsi untuk memberikan MgO pada campuran.

Feldspar mempunyai rumus umum R2O. Al2O3.6SiO2, dimana R2O dapat berupa Na2O atau K2O atau campuran keduanya. Sebagai sumber Al2O3, feldspar mempunyai banyak keunggulan dibanding produk lain, karena murah, murni, dan dapat dilebur. Dan seluruhnya terdiri dari oksida pembentuk kaca. Al2O3 sendiri digunakan hanya bila biaya tidak merupakan masalah. Feldspar juga merupakan sumber Na2O atau K2O dan SiO2. Kandungan aluminanya dapat menurunkan titik cair kaca serta memperlambat terjadinya devitrifikasi.

Borax atau Natrium Tetra Borate ialah bahan campuran yg menambahkan Na2O dan boron oksida pada kaca. Walaupun tidak sering dipakai dalam kaca jendela atau kaca lembaran, natrium tetraborate sekarang banyak digunakan didalam berbagai jenis kaca pengemas. Kaca borat berindeks tinggi dan mempunyai nilai dispersi lebih rendah dan indeks refraksi yang lebih tinggi dari semua kaca yang dikenal. Kaca ini biasa digunakan untuk kaca optik. selain daya fluksnya yang kuat, boraks tak hanya bersifat menurunkan koefisien ekspansi tapi juga meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap aksi kimia. Asam borat digunakan dalam tumpak yang memerlukan hanya sedikit alkali. Harganya hampir dua kali boraks.

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